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|PREFACE TO ROCOCO
There was a concerted move by Louis XIV to "rationalize" his reign and make associations to the former Holy Roman Emperorship. After all, Charlemagne, one of his predecessors, had been crowned "King of the Franks and Holy Roman Emperor" in 800 AD. Louis made these associations by surrounding himself and his court with all things "Classical." He established the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture to make the focus of art in France one which was also based on "Classical" forms. Classical ideas had created the foundation for Western thought, morality, and society. It also indicated that his reign was built on lofty ideals.In principle this may have been true, but Louis lived extravagantly, building the palace at Versailles with its sprawling gardens. He also spared no expense in his affairs of State, hoping to influence visiting dignitaries.
Louis also took control of France's political aristocracy by forcing them to live at Versailles. This insured that they would be following his direction by helping to promote his Classical vision.
-sometimes called the style of Louis XV (15th)
Antoine Watteau (1684-1721)
Jean Honore Fragonard
More serious in its nature, a reaction against Rococo and the morals of Louis XV
Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825)
Oath of the Horatii- 1784-5, oil on canvas, 14'x 11'
Death of Marat- 1793, oil on canvas, 5'3"x 4'1"
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (1780-1867)
-was government-appointed painter for Napoleon.
Grande Odalisque- 1814, oil on canvas, 3'x 5'4"
Thomas Jefferson (1769-84)
Theodore Gericault (1791-1824)
Raft of the Medusa, 1819, oil on canvas, 16'x 23'6"
Eugene Delacroix (1798-1863)
Liberty Leading the People, 1830, oil on canvas, 8'6"x 10'7"
Death of Sardanapalus, 1826, oil on canvas
Arabs Skirmishing in the Mountains, c. 1834, oil on canvas
Francisco de Goya
Executions on the Third of May, 1808, 1814, oil on canvas, 8'9"x 11'4"
Prints: Etchings include a series called the "Horrors of War"
Romantic Landscape Painting
The Pre-Raphaellite Brotherhood
-comes from direct observation of society and nature
Immanuel Kant-theorized the importance of the "disinterested viewer," that is the process of evaluating a work without sentiment based on the formal qualities of the piece.
G.F.W. Hegel-saw art as a sort of "conscience" for the world and believed that it should exist on the perimeter of society to reflect and critque society. He said that the clash of contrary principles helps society progress.
French Realist Painting
-portrayed "proletariat" or working class or direct observation of nature
The Barbizon School
Jean-Francois Millet (1814-75)
The Gleaners- 1857, oil on canvas, 2'9"x 3'8"
Gustave Courbet (1819-77)
Honore Daumier (1808-79)
Rue Transonian, lithograph, c.1830's
Third Class Carriage, 1862, oil on canvas
Dejeuner sur L'Herbe (Luncheon in the Grass), 1863, oil on canvas, 7'x 9'
Olympia, 1863, oil on canvas
Bar at the Folies-Bergere, 1881-2, oil on canvas
-was interested in the effects of color
Impression: Sunrise, 1872, oil on canvas
Rouen Cathedral and Haystack series
Absinthe, 1876, oil on canvas
Little Dancer Fourteen Years Old, 1881, bronze sculpture
-was a movement based on Impressionism
Mount Sainte Victoire series
Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte, 1884-6, oil on canvas
Vincent Van Gogh
The Night Cafe,
Starry Night, c. 1888-9, oil on canvas
Edward Munch, The Scream, 1893, oil on canvas.
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