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Chapter 13: The Classical World
The Greeks believed that Man was an ideal form. In their estimation, Man is the measure of all things. Their works reflect an interest in the naturalistic world. More like reality except that there is an emphasis on the "ideal" figure.
-by 800 BC there were two groups in Greece the Ionians and the Dorians. Dorians inhabited the mainland, Ionians the east coast, islands and E. Turkey. The Dorians aided the Ionians in ousting the Persians from Greece.
Encaustic Painting- using pigment and Beeswax to paint.
- styles changed during different social periods in Greek culture.
-Archaic-(c. 660-480 BC)
-has open form and implies movement.
-often portrayed with a smile
Athens rises to the forefront of Greek culture because of the victory over Xerxes (Persia) at Salamis. This begins the Golden Age of Athens around 480 B.C.
-Classical-(c. 490-300 BC)
Lost Wax Process in Casting- using a mold, which is heated and wax melts out
artist: Polyclitus of Argos
(Spearbearer) (c. 440 BC) marble copy of a bronze original with underlying organic structure of the body, great care with details
Aesthetics of Plato and Aristotle
Hellenistic - (323-31 BC)
-(Winged Nike of Samothrace) (c. 190 BC) marble
-(Laocoon) (c. 100-200 BC), Based on a story from Homer about the Trojan War. Laocoon was a Trojan priest who opposed accepting the Trojan Horse as a peace offering. The Greek gods sent serpents in the night to kill Laocoon and his sons for opposing the acceptance of the Horse.
-(Dying Gaul) -The Gauls were renowned for their fighting ability and this sculpture is a homage to the bravery of an enemy.
Paestum Basilica, 550 B.C.
Classical Greek Architecture -called the age of Pericles because this Greek statesman called for and initiated the building program on the Acropolis during the Classical period. Buildings such as the Parthenon and the Erecthteum were built to honor Athena, patron goddess of Athens.
Parthenon- (c. 448-432 BC) by Ictinus and Callicrates, marble
Apollo of Veii-terra cotta figure similar to Greek archaic kouros figures.
Sarcophagus from Cerveteri
A bronze of a She-Wolf suckling Romulus and Remus (the mythical founders of Rome) gives an idea of the great skill with which Etruscan artists worked.
-encaustic: beeswax and pigment
Sculpture-mostly very naturalistic with few examples (after Hellenistic Greek)
Augustus Prima Porta- 1st C AD, marble, unknown artist
Next study guide: Chapter 14